Sleep: Bedroom to the Dressing room!

Being in today’s decade having seen many individuals without considering their age; the way of sleep patterns have been altered a lot whether sedentary or athlete population.

Sleep is the natural way of recovery with an altered state of consciousness; relax muscle due to inhibited motor and sensory activities in muscles, inhibition of all voluntary activity during rapid eye movement and, reduced interaction with the environment.

Photo by Mpho Mojapelo on Unsplash

Broadly, there are two types of Sleep: Non- rapid eye movement (Non-REM) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep which differ in their behavioural state. Non-REM occurs first and is slow-wave and deep sleep; in which there is less consumption of energy (carbohydrates) with a decline in heart rate and temperature.

REM sleep is a paradoxical sleep that represents a smaller portion of sleep time comprises of dreams, desynchronized and fast brain waves, loss of muscle tone, rapid eye movement, and suspension of homeostasis. The sleep cycle of substitute

Non-REM and REM take a normal of an hour and a half happening 4 to 5 times in good nighttime sleep. Physiologically, there is less consumption of adenosine diphosphate and adenosine triphosphate in the brain when in sleep specifically in Non- REM, thereby brain restores its energy (ATP), overall only 20 per cent of energy is consumed in sleeping. Circadian rhythm is a 24 hours biological cycle that regulates the sleep-wake cycle which is controlled by suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) located in the hypothalamus, produces timing signal modulating circadian rhythm of sleep and alertness, core body temperature, certain hormonal secretion such as melatonin (a sleep-inducing hormone) and cortisol. The SCN, through the eye, senses the light (darkness) and sends the signal to pineal glands which secretes melatonin.

According to the American Academy of Sleep, Medicine adult requires a minimum of 7 hours to 9 hours of sleep for optimal performance and health while adolescents require ideally 8 to 9 hours of sleep.

How to measure sleep?
There are various ways to measure sleep from the sleep laboratory to the subjective questionnaire.
In labs, polysomnography is done to measure the sleep quality as well as quantity, it comprises Electroencephalography, electromyography, and electro-oculargraphy. Whereas, there are subjective questionnaires like The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale and, Pittsburgh Sleep Diary.
Cause of Sleep Deprivation
So, when talking about the causes of sleep disorder there have to be too many variations as per the social-economic culture mainly. In the last half decades, lots of sleep deprivation has been seen because of mainly poor daily habits, lots of work burdens, or psychological disorders. Young individuals have been seen doing binge-watching of daily soaps which have been one of the major causes of sleep issues in sedentary adults and athletes.
Athletic sleep deprivation is also seen because of mainly jet lags, travelling, over-training, an increased number of matches or poor performance inducing other psychological problems like anxiety, depression, etc. causing sleep issues. Pathologically, there may be many illnesses that may hamper sleep patterns.

Types of Circadian Rhythm Sleep disorder:

Delayed Sleep Phase disorder: These are evening type individuals (more common in adolescents) who typically awake till 1:00 AM and wakes up more than 2 hours late than normal individuals.

Advanced Sleep Phase disorder: These are morning types (old age) who typically wake up between 2 a.m. and 5 a.m. and go to sleep between 6 p.m. and 9 p.m. These are persons who regularly go to sleep and wake up several hours earlier than most people.

Jet Lag: Jet lag happens when a long tour by aeroplane quickly puts someone in any other time zone. In this new place, the person has to sleep and wake at times that are misaligned together with his or her frame clock. The severity of the hassle will increase with the range of time zones that are crossed.

Shift work disorder: Shift work disorder happens whilst a person’s work hours are scheduled at some stage in the normal sleep period. Sleepiness at some point in the work shift is common, and looking to sleep at some stage in the time of day while most others are awake can be a struggle.

Irregular sleep-wake rhythm: This disorder occurs when someone has a sleep-wake cycle that is undefined. The person’s sleep is fragmented into a series of naps that arise at some point in 24 hours.

Effects of Sleep disorders

  • Depression
  • sleep loss
  • excessive sleepiness
  • insomnia
  • impaired performance
  • disrupted social schedules.

Treatment:

  • Lifestyle changes
  • Sleep hygiene
  • Bright light therapy
  • Medications
  • Melatonin
  • Decrease intake of caffeine

Happy Learning…!!

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Swetank Pathak

Swetank Pathak

Sports Physiotherapist ▶ Sports Scientist ▶ Data Scientist ▶ Sports Analyst ▶ Python ▶ React ▶ loading!